We begin with the assumption that the null hypothesis is true, and then proceed to test this assumption, but researchers are usually interested in rejecting the null.Normally we believe a difference exists; a decision to reject the null is usually the desired outcome (we want a low p-value).We are using a logic of proof by con- tradiction: we want to find support for the alternative hypothesis by showing that there is no support for its opposite, the null hypothesis.

Does this mean that if we fail to reject the null, the difference we are searching for does not exist?
Not necessarily: failing to reject the null hypothesis of no dif- ference simply means there is no evidence to think that the null hypoth- esis is wrong. This does not necessarily mean, however, that it is the right. There might actually be a difference out there but on the basis of the sample result such a difference has not been detected.This like the presumption of innocence in criminal law. A defendant is presumed not guilty unless the evidence is strong enough to justify a verdict of guilty.However, when someone has been found not guilty on the strength of the available evidence, it does not mean that the person is in fact innocent: all it means is that, given that either verdict is possible, we do not choose ‘guilty’ unless stronger evidence comes to light.Similarly, with a verdict of ‘no difference’, failing to reject the null hypothesis does not mean the alterna- tive is wrong.It simply means that on the basis of the information available, the null can explain the sample result without stretching our notion of reasonable probability. 

Therefore, failing to find a significant difference should not be seen as conclu- sive.If we have good theoretical grounds for suspecting that a difference really does exist, even though a test suggests that it does not, this can be the basis of future research.Perhaps he variable has not been operationalized effectively, or the level of measurements does not provide sufficient information, or the sample what not appropriately chosen or was not large enough.In the context of research, inference tests do not prove anything; they are usually evidence in an ongoing discussion or debate that rarely reaches a decisive conclusion. 

Becoming a PhD scholar is no easy feat. You need to be motivated, dedicated and ready to face different challenges that come along during your PhD research days. Just getting enrolled in a renowned university is no enough. You must be creative, innovative and communicative to pass through various stages of PhD challenges. You need to understand and acknowledge the importance PhD proposal and synopsis that will play a significant role in getting you to your destination, i.e. attaining your PhD degree.

Writing a good PhD proposal and synopsis is the first stepping stone in your research scholar life. Your PhD proposal will establish the area of your research project, the main research questions you will be searching answers for and the research methods you will be applying. Writing a proposal is surely not easy. The topic which you choose and the rhythm which you set in your proposal and synopsis will form the basis of your research. So, it is advisable not to approach your proposal in haste or write down anything randomly.

Instead, you need to be creative and dedicated in your approach. To prepare the first few drafts you can take the assistance of your mentor. Of course, over the period of yours study, your initial thoughts and ideas will be refined. There may come a time when you may have to change the entire course of your research. For this reason, it is advisable to present a revised synopsis of your proposal every year at the annual review.

The synopsis needs to be written and organized in the similar manner as the proposal. The synopsis will also include a summary of your work which has already been completed.

Let us now discuss the structure of the proposal or synopsis.

  • Working Title: You need to write a working title that will work for your project.

  • Aims and statement of topics

  • Review of literature and relevant practice

  • Method or approach of your dissertation

  • Findings

  • Summary or evaluation

  • Research time line

Always remember that the proposal or synopsis of your dissertation needs to be precise and impressive if you need it to get approved in the first submission itself. If it is not well-written, the dissertation committee will reject it and send it to you for corrections. Gauging the importance of PhD proposal and to prepare the PhD proposal and synopsis, you can even take the assistance of expert PhD holders with significant experience and know-how!